#### Transcript Black Holes

Chapter 13: Black Holes, Relativity and Einstein Clicker Question: Which of the following is true about a binary pulsar system? A: It will last forever. B: They can only be found in star forming regions C: The total mass of the two pulsars must be more than 10 solar masses. D: Each of the pulsars was produced by a massive star that exploded in a Supernova event. Final States of a Star 1. White Dwarf If initial star mass < 8 MSun or so. (and remember: Maximum WD mass is 1.4 MSun , radius is about that of the Earth) 2. Neutron Star If initial mass > 8 MSun and < 25 MSun . 3. Black Hole If initial mass > 25 MSun . Pulsars are incredibly accurate clocks! Example: period of the first discovered "millisecond pulsar" is: P = 0.00155780644887275 sec It is slowing down at a rate of 1.051054 x 10 -19 sec/sec The slowing-down rate is slowing down at a rate of: 0.98 x 10 -31 /sec Pulsar Exotica Binary pulsars: two pulsars in orbit around each other. Einstein predicted that binary orbits should "decay", i.e. the masses would spiral in towards each other, losing energy through "gravitational radiation". Confirmed by binary pulsar. Curve: prediction of decaying orbit. Points: measurements. Planets around pulsars: A pulsar was found in 1992 to have three planets! Masses about 3 MEarth, 1 MEarth, and 1 MMoon ! year Millisecond pulsars: periods of 1 to a few msec. Probably accreted matter from a binary companion that made it spin faster. Gamma-ray Bursts: some pulsars produce bursts of gamma-rays, called Soft Gamma-Ray Repeaters or SGRs Black Holes A stellar mass black hole accreting material from a companion star 6 Black Holes and General Relativity General Relativity: Einstein's description of gravity (extension of Newton's). Published in 1915. It begins with: The Equivalence Principle Let's go through the following series of thought experiments and arguments: 1) Imagine you are far from any source of gravity, in free space, weightless. If you shine a light or throw a ball, it will move in a straight line. 7 2. If you are in freefall, you are also weightless. Einstein says these are equivalent. So in freefall, the light and the ball also travel in straight lines. 3. Now imagine two people in freefall on Earth, passing a ball back and forth. From their perspective, they pass the ball in a straight line. From a stationary perspective, the ball follows a curved path. So will a flashlight beam, but curvature of light path is small because light is fast (but not infinitely so). The different perspectives are called frames of reference. 8 4. Gravity and acceleration are equivalent. An apple falling in Earth's gravity is the same as one falling in an elevator accelerating upwards, in free space. 5. All effects you would observe by being in an accelerated frame of reference you would also observe when under the influence of gravity. 9 Examples: 1) Bending of light. If light travels in straight lines in free space, then gravity causes light to follow curved paths. 10 Observed! In 1919 eclipse by Eddington 11 Gravitational lensing of a single background quasar into 4 objects 1413+117 the “cloverleaf” quasar A ‘quad’ lens 12 Gravitational lensing. The gravity of a foreground cluster of galaxies distorts the images of background galaxies into arc shapes. 13 Saturn-mass black hole 14 Clicker Question: Eddington and his team were able to see a star appear from behind the sun sooner than expected during the 1919 solar eclipse due to: A: bending of the light by heat waves from the sun B: bending of the light due to the mass of the sun C: acceleration of the light to higher speeds by the sun D: bending of the light by strong magnetic fields 15 Clicker Question: Einstein’s equivalence principle states that: A: Mass and Energy are related B: All clocks appear to record time at the same rate regardless of how fast they move. C: Time and Money are related D: An observer cannot distinguish between an accelerating frame due to motion or due to gravity. 16 2. Gravitational Redshift later, speed > 0 light received when elevator receding at some speed. Consider accelerating elevator in free space (no gravity). time zero, speed=0 light emitted when elevator at rest. Received light has longer wavelength (or shorter frequency) because of Doppler Shift ("redshift"). Gravity must have same effect! Verified in Pound-Rebka experiment. 17 3. Gravitational Time Dilation A photon moving upwards in gravity is redshifted. Since 1 T the photon's period gets longer. Observer 1 will measure a longer period than Observer 2. So they disagree on time intervals. Observer 1 would say that Observer 2's clock runs slow! 1 2 All these effects are unnoticeable in our daily experience! They are tiny in Earth’s gravity, but large in a black hole’s. 18 Escape Velocity Velocity needed to escape the gravitational pull of an object. vesc = 2GM R Escape velocity from Earth's surface is 11 km/sec. If Earth were crushed down to 1 cm size, escape velocity would be speed of light. Then nothing, including light, could escape Earth. This special radius, for a particular object, is called the Schwarzschild Radius, RS. RS M. 19 Black Holes If core with about 3 MSun or more collapses, not even neutron pressure can stop it (total mass of star about 25 MSun). Core collapses to a point, a "singularity". Gravity is so strong that nothing can escape, not even light => black hole. Schwarzschild radius for Earth is 1 cm. For a 3 MSun object, it’s 9 km. 20 Event horizon: imaginary sphere around object with radius equal to Schwarzschild radius. Event horizon Schwarzschild Radius Anything crossing over to inside the event horizon, including light, is trapped. We can know nothing more about it after it does so. 21 Black hole achieves this by severely curving space. According to Einstein's General Relativity, all masses curve space. Gravity and space curvature are equivalent. Like a rubber sheet, but in three dimensions, curvature dictates how all objects, including light, move when close to a mass. 22 Curvature at event horizon is so great that space "folds in on itself", i.e. anything crossing it is trapped. 23 Approaching a Black Hole: 24 Circling a Black Hole at the Photon Sphere: 25 Effects around Black Holes 1) Enormous tidal forces. 2) Gravitational redshift. Example, blue light emitted just outside event horizon may appear red to distant observer. 3) Time dilation. Clock just outside event horizon appears to run slow to a distant observer. At event horizon, clock appears to stop. 26 Black Holes have no Hair Properties of a black hole: - Mass - Spin (angular momentum) - Charge (tends to be zero) 27 Black Holes can have impact on their environments 28 Do Black Holes Really Exist? Good Candidate: Cygnus X-1 - Binary system: 30 MSun star with unseen companion. - Binary orbit => companion > 7 MSun. - X-rays => million degree gas falling into black hole. 29 Supermassive (3 million solar mass) Black Hole at the Galactic Center 30